The Machine


This project aims to build a machine – the LMX
An experimental platform to research gyroscopic properties
In particular the properties of a unique gyroscopic configuration. The configuration is untried and un-documented and requires a test bed to validate it. Computer simulations will not suffice.
Authors Note: To date, I have built the engineering mock-up pictured above.

A spinning gyroscope has the ability to manifest a two-dimensional stability in fixed space (‘rigidity’) and to align itself with the most fixed point in the universe.

The purpose of the LMX programme is to investigate the possibility of a gyroscopic configuration which can infer a three-dimensional stability (or rigidity) in fixed space. Taking the example of the Pole Star, three-dimensional stability would describe the ability to acquire a portion of the cosmic acceleration of the Pole Star relative to the Earth. Operating such a system would be like putting up a sail and catching the cosmic wind. To put it another way, it wouldn’t actually be achieving motion, but rather achieving standstill – although to the observer on earth its acceleration could be substantial.

I envisage a specific layout and operating protocol:
LMX consists of a rotating gyroscopic platform (the ‘solar disc’) carrying a constellation of gyroscopes (‘planets’) around its ecliptic plane; with each planet gimballed so that its axis is able to move from an alignment co-incident with solar axis, to one where it becomes a spoke radiating out to the solar ecliptic. This ‘phase-shift’ of the orbiting gyroscopes axes is called ‘sectoring’.
The central feature of this invention is that ‘sectoring’ occurs while both the solar disc and the planet constellation is spinning. If either is stopped no useful moments will occur. This feature is also the most difficult to engineer and presents the greatest challenge to making the LMX test vehicle. It is also integral to this idea that ‘sectoring’ of planets occurs ‘in concert‘ (i.e. planetary pairs or trines operating in unison).


LMX Layout Schematic

The LMX test bed, with its dedicated operating protocol, will require a high level of precision in digital control and measurement resources (servos and sensors).

Advances in technology (e.g. 3D printing and digital control systems) make it possible to construct a viable test machine within the constraints of a reasonable budget. Along with hardware costs, the test machine will require the design of digital control and feedback systems to manage its operation; It will also require specialised dynamic balancing to the highest precision. I do have the design personnel along with commercial resources and services identified and ready. With in house collaborative support I estimate there is an investment requirement of £18-20,000.

 

Component parts


Architecture
The heart of the proposed LMX research unit will be a three gyroscopic system on a single solar platform. This forms an LMX ‘system’ which, component-wise and as a unit, must be engineered and dynamically balanced to high standard.

Base or Plinth
The base of the LMX unit will be attached to a Test Rig Table via accellerometers to monitor results and obtain data readings. The log of these results will be one of the primary research resources.

Solar Disc
The solar disc (the primary rotor) and the electric motor which drives it are mounted in the base of the LMX. The solar disc has no freedom to move except in the rotary plane. Providing power to it is straight forward and needs no special design.

Planet Rotors
The main design challenges are:
1) to engineer the means of supplying power from the static LMX base to the planet motors mounted on the spinning solar disc. In the engineering mock-up, 28 volt power to aircraft instrument gyros was delivered via slip rings, and this principle, albeit developed, may be the solution. At any rate, the requirement is that planet rotors spin in concert at a value which is measurable and controllable.
2) to engineer the means of supplying power to the sectoring servos. In the engineering mock-up, motive power to the servos was supplied from an on-board 6 volt battery station. At the rotation speeds envisaged this form of sectoring power is totally unsuitable. At present this is an area where the input of engineering design help is needed to identify a solution.

Planet Sectoring Servos
The engineering mock-up utilised a radio control system for operating the servos. This is still a valid method for controlling the servos but the test rig will require much better, aviation standard equipment, able to control, monitor and record the sectoring angles precisely. 

Orientation
Although suspending the LMX unit so that its solar axis is horizontal is an attractive option, the high rotational speeds desired (without any torque-balancing from a contra-rotating mirror unit) make it an untenable choice. The test machine will therefore be designed to operate in what might be called a conventional ‘bench’ layout (with the solar axis vertical).

Other considerations:
It might be advantageous to enclose the entire test rig within a partial-vacuum container to minimise aerodynamic interference.
The LMX test bed, if it is to achieve any sort of worthwhile rotational (and this kinetic) speeds, will require the highest level of precision in digital control and measurement resources (servos and sensors).

 


Resources

 

Some interesting potential suppliers to the LMX project:


1  Brightfusion Ltd  Gloucester (Gyroscope.com),

make Control Moment Gyroscopes and Platforms for modellers. The architecture of these systems (with an off-the-shelf cost of about £3,000) resemble the LMX layout. Brightfusion Ltd. Are well placed to manufacture the solar disc platform and planet gyro system to a dedicated pattern (see pic).

 


2  Wren engines, Barnsley
(www.turbinesolutions.co.uk) manufacture small jet engines for modellers with RPM range up to 195,000. This company and the Gas Turbine and Transmissions Research Centre (part of The University of Nottingham) have access to the sort of Dynamic Balancing equipment needed for the LMX test bed.

 

Note:  I also refer to the LMX as a ‘Gyroscopic Displacement Unit’ (GDU), a system intended to gyroscopically displace itself in space.


Background


Spinning masses (Gyroscopes) have Two properties – Rigidity and Precession.


Rigidity refers to the tendency of a spinning mass to maintain its position in Fixed Space. To illustrate this, if we spun up a gyro which had perfect friction-less bearings, mounted inside a friction-less gimballed frame, then the gyro axis would maintain its position indefinitely relative to the most fixed point in the universe, i.e. the Pole Star (hence the term ‘fixed space’). To an observer on planet Earth, the gyro would appear to be moving but this movement would be entirely due to the Earth moving beneath the gyro, plus to a lesser extent, the movement of the Solar System and Milky Way. It is quite astonishing that gyros should do this, but they do, and corrections have to be built into instruments to allow for this. For example, directional gyros in aircraft employ a ‘latitude nut’ to correct for the earth’s rotation beneath the aircraft.

Precession is the reaction of a spinning mass to any applied force which displaces its spin axis. The force manifests itself not as applied but at 90° in the direction of rotation. Thus a bicycle rider who tries to turn a corner by turning the handlebars only, imparts a precessive force to the front wheel which tends to make the wheel (and thus the bike) bank the wrong way. Other forces will combine with this to throw him off. But if he first banks the bike, then precessive forces in both wheels try to ‘steer’ the wheels correctly in the direction of the bank. The front wheel is free to do this, and he needs put no force on the handlebars to initiate the necessary turn radius, the action of banking is sufficient. This is also a curious property because although Newton’s laws of action and reaction are preserved, the action has clearly been transferred to another plane or dimension, in effect a phase-shift of forces through 90°.

NB: The above properties are classic physics but Professor Laithwaite discovered that when a gyroscopic system was arranged in an ‘orbital dumbbell’ configuration, the system manifested a loss of both inertia and centrifugal force (check out the video on the History page).

More
There is a correlation between Electro Magnetism and Gravity in that both are Vector Field functions (with the properties Gradient, Diversion and Curl). Electro magnetism breaks down into the electrical and magnetic components. Gravity can be broken down into gravito-electric and gravito-magnetic components. Electro magnetism follows the Right Hand rule. If the current through a wire is in the direction of the thumb of the right hand, the curl of the magnetic field is in the direction of the fingers.
As the presence of a charge produces an electric field so the presence of mass produces a gravito-electric field. Likewise as the motion of an electric charge through space produces a magnetic field so the motion of mass through space produces a gravito-magnetic field.
All these reactions redirect the vector of the applied force through 90°, which is exactly the same redirection that occurs in the precessive motion of a gyroscope.

 


Wheels within Wheels

 

If ever I’m allowed to see the wheels within the wheels

A line in the song ‘Princeton’, from the album ‘Earthrise’ by Richard Tandy and Dave Scott-Morgan.  


Ezekiel Chapter 1 verses 15 to 21

As I looked at the living creatures, I saw a wheel on the ground beside each creature with its four faces. This was the appearance and structure of the wheels: They sparkled like chrysolite, and all four looked alike. Each appeared to be made like a wheel intersecting a wheel. As they moved, they would go in any one of the four directions the creatures faced; the wheels did not turn about as the creatures went. Their rims were high and awesome, and all four rims were full of eyes all around. When the living creatures moved, the wheels beside them moved; and when the living creatures rose from the ground, the wheels also rose. Wherever the spirit would go, they would go, and the wheels would rise along with them, because the spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels. When the creatures moved, they also moved; when the creatures stood still, they also stood still; and when the creatures rose from the ground, the wheels rose along with them, because the spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels.

 

and in Ezekiel Chapter 10, verses 9-13, recording a different instance.
I looked, and I saw beside the cherubim four wheels, one beside each of the cherubim; the wheels sparkled like chrysolite.  As for their appearance, the four of them looked alike; each was like a wheel intersecting a wheel.  As they moved, they would go in any one of the four directions the cherubim faced; the wheels did not turn about as the cherubim went. The cherubim went in whatever direction the head faced, without turning as they went.  Their entire bodies, including their backs, their hands and their wings, were completely full of eyes, as were their four wheels. I heard the wheels being called “the whirling wheels”.

(Readings taken from the NIV edition of the Holy Bible)

 
What is it that Ezekiel saw in those accounts? Was it a vision? Was it real? Ezekiel himself said he wasn’t sure.
I was building the LMX prototype and I made reference to it in a song – ‘if ever I’m allowed to see the wheels within the wheels.’
I went as far as my thinking would take me for sure but the truth is, I had a vision about it. That closed the deal for me. I saw the wheels within the wheels and it was all to do with them tilting as they turned. I called it ‘sectoring’ and made reference to precessive forces at work but really, it was a vision. I saw it working in that way. I didn’t know why it worked, but I could see how. The system had to spin while exercising control  over the planet spin axis. That is where the trigger will be.

 


Further Considerations

 

The programme
To prove a motive force derived from a unique configuration and operating protocol of a gyroscopic system known as GDU for Gyroscopic Displacement Unit, or LMX for Levitation Machine Experimental. The system involves gyroscopes which orbit in concert around a main rotor and which are operated in such a manner so that they ‘phase shift’ their axes while the main system is spinning.

Spin Direction
If Planet spin direction is the same as solar spin, then as sectoring occurs, the planets will contribute axial energy to the solar disc via their precessive components, increasing solar disc RPM for a given power setting. The reverse will occur if solar/planet spin directions are not coincidental.

Cosmic Zero and Cosmic Stasis
Like an aircraft takes off into wind, the LMX might be usefully aligned against the prevailing ‘cosmic zero’ before being activated; (‘Cosmic zero’ is a point in azimuth and elevation which aligns with the current ‘cosmic stasis’ in fixed space, not necessarily the pole star). It might be logical to align the test bed against earthspin and toward the west so as to take advantage of the ambient acceleration present on the spinning earth.
The earth is driving into a positional wind cause by its diurnal rotation plus its orbital movement around the sun, and also the movement of the solar system itself within the universe.
A vehicle driven in part, by the summation of these accelerations, would operate rather like a sail in this wind. The wind can be conceptualised as a force always blowing toward the ambient ‘cosmic stasis’, or toward a point of maximum equilibrium where it is at rest with fixed space.
In the same way a freely gimbaled gyroscope will always try to align itself with the pole star (the ‘2D arbiter’ of fixed space), a 3D gyro system would try to position itself in fixed space and that means propel itself in a certain direction (toward the ambient ‘3D arbiter’ of fixed space).
As a propulsion system it would require its alignment to be set like the ‘sail’ of a yacht. To usefully go from A to B on earth for example, would require steady change of sail position (probably the alignment of LMX solar axis) and navigating such a machine would require some form of ‘tacking’ against the prevailing ‘wind’ just like it nautical equivalent.
Really, when the unit is operating it is tending toward the ‘cosmic stasis’ – that is, it is trying to achieve standstill and be fixed positionally in fixed space.

The wider picture
Obviously, the success of this research has the potential for wide reaching military and political ramifications. I am mindful at this stage that it would not be sensible to seek the support of entities who might have the economic gravity and willingness to move forward on it, but really should not be in the loop. Accordingly I am looking for private investment to take this idea to the next stage, the first stage being to validate the principle and obtain some data points. For now, wherever appropriate, the cover story is written in the tagline at the head of this article: ‘LMX is an experimental platform to research gyroscopic properties.’


© David Scott-Morgan  Feb 2021